For every driver comfort is the most preferable value in a car. And what does the word “comfort” stand for in this case? First, it is the sense of confidence in the vehicle you are driving. Modern electric vehicles are a vivid example of the flexibility of the human mind and its efforts to create the car of the future.
The three main types of Electric Vehicles
- Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEV) – the name already prompts that the vehicle is supported both by gasoline and electricity. HEVs start off by electric motor, but when the speed rises the gasoline joins in. A computer is inbuilt that controls the two motors. This device ensures the best performance and economy for the vehicle. HEV examples include:
Honda Civic Hybrid
Toyota Camry Hybrid
Toyota Prius Hybrid
Hyundai Ioniq Hybrid
Chevy Bolt EV
Hyundai Sonata and others.
- Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEV) – this type of Electric Vehicle can recharge by two ways – both by generative braking and plugging in to an external charging station. Some world-famous car manufacturers that produce PHEVs are:
Toyota Prius Prime
Chrysler Pacifica Hybrid
Ford Escape Plug-in Hybrid
Kia Niro Plug-in Hybrid
Kia Optima Plug-in Hybrid and others.
- Battery Electric Vehicles (BEV) – BEVs are fully supported by rechargeable batteries. The electricity of these vehicles is stored in a high – capacity battery packs. The power is used both for electric motor run as well as other electronic devices on board. With zero hazardous emissions BEVs are charged externally through an EV charger. Here are some examples of BEVs of the new generation:
Tesla Model 3
Tesla Model S
Tesla Y and others.
Classification of EV Chargers.
The ev charger types are distinguished based on the speed by which they are capable to recharge an Electric Vehicle battery. Hence, there are three types of EV chargers:
A level 1 ev charger provides charging through a 120 volt with an AC plug. This type of charger is suitable for ordinary household loads. Eight hours’ time is required to charge fully an Electric Vehicle that is approximately 75-80 miles. You can put it to a charge for the night. This type of charging is suitable for almost all Electric Vehicles as they are equipped with level 1 adapters. As level 1 ev charger uses a standard 120-volt AC house outlet, it is not suitable for countries with 200-240 V.
An ordinary level 1 EVSE that plugs into an outlet usually costs about $300-$600. A pedestal EV charging unit with access control costs about $1,500. The 80 percent of EV owners have their own home EVSE. This makes the maintenance of EV much more convenient. Adding around 2 – 5 miles range per hour the EVSE is quite simple in utilization. It does not require any special circumstances but a 120-volt (V) outlet. What you must do before charging your Electric Vehicle is to make sure that the circuit does not supply other appliances, such as a refrigerator or an air conditioner. Almost all EVs come with a portable Level 1 EVSE cord set with a three-prong plug on and a J1772 connector.
A level 2 ev charger supplies 240-volt power AC. That’s why it mainly requires specialized stations. The approximate time required for an EV full charging is 4-10 hours for 75-80 miles. There are countries or regions with default 240-volt households such as South and North Carolina. An ev level 2 charger is often situated in public car stations, working places or shopping centers, so that you can charge your car while working or shopping. In regions with 240-volt default AC outcome a house charger is the best solution for people who appreciate comfort, reliability and flexibility. The residential ev charger level 2 price ranges approximately between $500 – $2000. It is also worth mentioning that some states offer utility incentives in case of installation. Keep in mind that the installation of the 240v ev charger must comply with local or regional regulations. The price for installation is not a big deal unless you must have an electric service upgrade. In any case, the right choice of a licensed electrical contractor is very important.
Some level 2 charging stations can be used free while others require payment by different methods. The price for these charging stations’ utilization differs based on the provider and the state.
Level 3 or DC fast charging
Initially AC level 3 charger was designed, however it was never implemented. What is currently used is the level 3 ev charger or in other words DC fast charger. It generally supports charging up to 500-volt for passenger cars and about 700-volt nominal DC power for EV tracks and buses. The most widely used ev fast charger is the Tesla Supercharger. Hence, for instance for a Tesla Model S75 a supercharger can add about 170 miles of range in about 30 minutes or fully charge in about 75 minutes. If you check out the ev charger maps you will see that Tesla Supercharging station network is expanding rapidly.
An interesting issue about this charging station is that cold weather can prolong the time of charging. Requiring specialized and powerful equipment for good performance the level 3 ev charger is basically used in commercial and industrial areas. They are also very expensive for individual installation. The cost of the ev fast charger ranges approximately between $10,000 – $35,000.
We already found out that the level 1 and level 2 ev chargers are the most suitable for home installation. Level 1 is simpler and easier to install, in comparison with level 2, which requires special equipment that is more expensive to install. A home ev charger installation requires detailed research about the most suitable type for a specific location.
Author of the article: Helen Kocharyan